The History of the Croissant

Ah, the croissant: a symbol of French culture, synonymous with café culture and lazy Sunday brunches, elegant and flaky with a buttery aroma that whets the appetite. But have you ever wondered about the origins of this delicious pastry?

Unveiling the Layers of Its Rich Past

Contrary to popular belief, the croissant is not as “French” as we like to think. The story of this delicious delicacy unfolds through centuries and across borders, with each layer as intricate as the pastry itself.

Young couple in a cafe in Paris, France enjoying coffee and a croissant.
Young couple in a cafe in Paris, France

Austrian Beginnings: The Birth of the Kipferl

The croissant’s earliest ancestor is believed to be the Austrian “Kipferl.” This crescent-shaped pastry has been enjoyed in Austria since at least the 13th century. A popular tale asserts that the Kipferl was created to celebrate the Austrian victory over the Ottoman Empire in 1683, with its crescent shape chosen to mimic the Islamic crescent moon found on the Ottoman flag. Though this story is more of a culinary legend than a verified historical fact, the Kipferl undeniably laid the groundwork for what we now know as the croissant.

The Croissant Comes to France

While it’s romantic to imagine Austrian princess Marie Antoinette introducing the croissant to France when she married King Louis XVI, a more likely scenario is that Austrian bakers brought the pastry with them when they moved to Paris. In particular, Sylvain Bailly opened a Viennese bakery in Paris in 1839, which is credited with popularizing Austrian pastries, including the predecessor of the croissant.

The Evolution: From Simple to Sophisticated

The early versions of the croissant in France were made using simple bread dough. However, by the end of the 19th century, French bakers began to experiment with “laminating” the dough, layering it with butter to create the rich, flaky, and buttery pastry that we love today. This culinary innovation dramatically elevated the texture and flavor of the original bread-like pastry.

An Emblem of French Culture

The croissant may have originated in Austria, but it has become a staple in French bakeries and patisseries. Across France, regional variations and flavor enhancements, like almond and chocolate fillings, have emerged. The croissant has evolved into numerous beloved forms, such as the almond croissant, filled with almond paste, and the chocolate croissant, known in France as “pain au chocolat.”

Croissant in the Modern World

Today, the croissant has global appeal, transcending cultural and geographic boundaries. From the streets of New York to the cafes of Tokyo, the croissant has been embraced and adapted, yet the classic French version remains the gold standard for pastry connoisseurs worldwide.


While its roots may be Austrian, the croissant has been wholeheartedly adopted by the French, and it has become a symbol of the artistry, tradition, and skill that are so highly valued in French cuisine. In a poetic sense, every bite of a croissant encapsulates centuries of history, culinary evolution, and cultural exchange. The next time you enjoy this flaky delight, savor not just its taste, but also the rich and complex history baked into each delicious, buttery layer.

Bon appétit!